Environmental Safety

Imagine that you are the Director of Environmental Safety for a major city in the United States. As the director, you are asked to write a press release educating the public on chemical and mechanical weathering of national monuments, such as the limestone buildings in Washington, DC, or important tombs made of limestone throughout the country.

Create an educational brochure that includes the following information:

  • Definitions of both mechanical and chemical weathering
  • Descriptions of frost wedging, frost heaving, salt-crystal growth, and exfoliation
  • Descriptions of hydrolysis, oxidation and carbonation
  • Explanation of the relationship between chemical and mechanical weathering
  • Explanation of how human activity affects chemical and mechanical weathering

Format your references consistent with APA guidelines.


Research Paper – Operant Conditioning: Applying Animal Research To Human Behavior

Minimum of 6 pages – 7 pages max, APA format 12 point font Times New Roman Double space – not including the cover page and reference page. Do not number cover page, number 1 start on the first page of essay and 1″ margin on all four side.  Do not use right-justified (even-right hands) margin.  No plagiarism cannot quote or paraphrase from summarized articles or other sources.  Need to be your own words throughout, if the summary is better than the interpretation, than it is evidence you are copying.  This is counted 50 percent of my grade and is like a final exam.  Work must be provided with a no plagiarism report.  Please see the attached for full instructions.  Below is a brief summary of what you need to write on and you must follow the instructions listed below on how to right this research paper.  I need an A and I do not want to get an F.  The professor state you must follow his direct instructions,   THERE MAY OCCASIONALLY BE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TEXT’S VERSIONS OF CONCEPTS AND THE VERSIONS THAT I PRESENT IN CLASS, IN 302notes.doc, OR IN DOCUMENTS LISTED IN 302schedule.doc. WHEREVER THERE IS A DIFFERENCE, THE VERSION THAT I PROVIDE IS THE ONE THAT YOU SHOULD PRESENT IN YOUR PAPER.

The paper is divided into two parts (you do not need to include the headings listed below).  

Part 1: Basic Concepts and Principles  The first part of the paper discusses the fundamentals of operant conditioning based on animal research. First Two Paragraphs on Page 1:  Begin with a definition of operant conditioning as an approach to analyzing behavior that focuses on the ways in which behavior is influenced by its consequences in the environment. You can illustrate the process of operant conditioning by using the prototypical experiment of a rat that presses a bar, receives food, and then presses the bar at a higher rate. NOTE: It would be useful to define reinforcement and punishment here in the first paragraph when you discuss the consequences of behavior. However, DO NOT start defining positive and negative reinforcement, and positive and negative punishment, in the first paragraph because these are technical distinctions that would distract from the basic point of the paragraph.   For contrast, in the next paragraph (not later in the paper), present a short paragraph (half page maximum) that discusses classical conditioning as a process in which learning occurs even though the learned behavior has no consequences in the environment. You can illustrate this process with the experiment in which the ringing of a bell is paired with food and a dog learns to salivate when the bell is rung even though the food is given regardless of the animal’s behavior. (You don’t have to use the terms US, UR, CS, CR.) Starting with the Third Paragraph and Continuing for 2 or 3 pages:  Define and give your own examples of the terms listed below (Part 1 is not a literature review). A common problem with students’ papers is that they leave out required terms or do not provide the requested information. It is suggested that you check off each of the following terms and related information as you complete it. Do not simply the list the terms. They should be conceptually related to each other with logical transitions between terms.      SEE CHECKLIST ON NEXT PAGE

Key Points on Terms … 1. Be sure to define a technical term before you use it to explain something else. 2. Do not use the term that you’re defining in the definition of that term.

Part 2: Human Operant Research  The second part of the paper summarizes two or more experiments (from different research articles, not from the same article) on human operant behavior that illustrate concepts from Part 1.  The articles you use must involve human participants in either a laboratory or applied setting. No credit will be given for a summary in which the subjects were animals. IN AT LEAST ONE OF YOUR ARTICLES, THE PARTICIPANTS MUST BE NORMAL ADULTS OR NORMAL TEENAGERS (i.e. not children, not psychotics, not mental patients, not autistic persons, and not mentally retarded persons).  The main purpose of the research must have been to study a process in operant conditioning (they can’t just use an operant concept to explain results from a study in a different field). Do not use an article that assesses ways of teaching operant conditioning.  The articles must be from a primary source in a printed journal (not a website or web page) describing the full original experiment and not from a secondary source, such as Psychological Bulletin, that presents summaries. Each of the experiments you summarize must come from a different research article. If a research article includes more than one experiment, you do not have to summarize all of the experiments in that article. One is enough if your summary of it is detailed and substantial. Each article must be summarized separately. Do not combine two  9 articles into a single summary that makes blanket statements about what the two studies had in common.  Begin each summary by stating what concept or concepts from Part 1 it illustrates. In at least 1 page per article (preferably more than 1 page), describe the rationale, procedure, and specific findings of the study. In other words, you should compare findings (e.g., response rates) in different conditions or groups and not just state a general conclusion that the researchers drew from their findings. The summary is in past tense.  For an article on shaping, describe in detail the successive approximations that were used to establish the target response.   Whatever topic you select, your description of the research must be thorough enough to demonstrate that you have carefully read and understood the research. Use your own words and avoid paraphrasing and jargon.   Before summarizing your first study, present a paragraph to relate Part 1 to Part 2. You should indicate which concepts from Part 1 will be illustrated. Also, point out the key role of instructions in human operant research. A significant way in which human operant research differs from research with nonhuman species is that with human participants instructions are usually included to speed up the conditioning process. Typically, instructions are used to describe the response that will be reinforced. After the response occurs, it produces reinforcement and then the frequency of the response is increased. Instructions may also be used to describe the reinforcers (or punishers) involved and the schedules under which they will be administered (e.g., the complex reinforcement systems used in token economies).  You can point out that even though the use of instructions may seem to make human operant research fundamentally different from animal research, the instructions themselves may be conceptualized in basic operant conditioning terms. Instructions can be a type of discriminative stimulus in that they precede the response and signal that if the response is performed it may be reinforced. In this sense, instructions are just a more complex form of the visual and auditory stimuli used as discriminative stimuli in animal research.  Referring to an article. When you introduce an article in Part 2, give the authors’ last names and the year of publication, like: “A study by Renee and Creer (1976) used shaping to …” Do not give the authors’ first names, their institutional affiliation, or the title of the article.  SUGGESTED READINGS  As a general suggestion, you could look through issues of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. This journal specializes in the study of human operant behavior in socially significant settings. In addition to the paper copies available in the library, all issues (except those from the most recent 6 months) are available online for free in pdf format. Links to all of the issues and articles can be found in the following archive: In your summary of each article, highlight the ways in which the researcher used instructions to facilitate conditioning, for example, by describing the response that was required for reinforcement or by describing the possible outcomes of that response.  see attachment for articles to read and research.

Assessment 1: Written Essay: Inter-professional Practice & Patient Safety


Word Limit: 2000 words



The purpose of this essay is to enable you to critically evaluate current research about adverse events in the acute environment. You will examine nursing strategies that can be used to prevent adverse events in a hospital including the role of inter-professional practice in promoting patient safety.


This assessment item will address all three (3) learning outcomes for this course.

Task description:

For this task you need to write a 2000-word essay.

  1. Choose ONE of the following preventable adverse events options that may occur whilst a patient is in hospital:
    1. Medications errors
    2. Clinical management – failure to act
    3. Hospital acquired infection


  1. Write a critical evaluation of current research about adverse events in the acute environment. Note that the term critically evaluate “sometimes called critically analyse or review means to show the essence of something by breaking it down into it is components parts, examining each part in detail and explaining issues…”. It also means making connections and seeing relationships between information. The term critically evaluate also implies to weigh up strengths and weaknesses and judge the worth of the argument or position


  1. Your essay MUST include the following components:
  2. An opening paragraph that identifies the aim of the assignment (including ONE chosen adverse event from the list below)
  3. A definition of an adverse event
  4. A discussion of the prevalence of your chosen adverse event in an Australian hospital setting
  5. An analysis of the identified topic’s effects or consequences on the patient, patient’s family and health care system
  6. A critical evaluation of TWO nursing strategies involving inter-professional practice that may be used to prevent the chosen adverse event


  1. A discussion of the potential barriers in achieving the chosen identified strategies in a hospital setting
  2. A discussion about how the nurse may overcome the potential barriers in a hospital setting to promote patient safety
  3. A conclusion with a final paragraph summarising the central points of your essay.
  4. A Reference list formatted to APA6 style.
  5. Reference to a minimum of 10 journal articles no more than five years old.



Other elements:

  • Word limits for all assignments needs to be strictly adhered to. The word limit for an assessment item includes in text citations, tables and quotations.  The word limit does not include the reference list. Please note the marker will cease marking your submitted work once they have reached the allocated word limit.
  • Ensure that you use scholarly literature (digitised readings, research articles, relevant Government reports and text books) that have been published in in the last 5 years.


  • Write in the third person and use academic language


  • Refer to the marking criteria when writing your assignment. This will assist you in calculating the weightings of the sections for your assignment.



























CRITERION ONE: Introduction  
▪          Concise, opening paragraph that identifies the aim of the assignment (6)

▪          Defines an adverse event (4)


CRITERION TWO: Knowledge & Context  
▪          Discuss the prevalence of one (1) chosen adverse event in an Australian hospital setting (6)

▪          Analyse the chosen preventable adverse event effects on the patient, patient’s family and health care system (14)

CRITERION THREE:  Critical evaluation  
▪          Critical evaluation of two (2) nursing strategies involving  inter-professional practice that may be used to prevent the chosen adverse event (24)


Note: each strategy critically evaluated will be 12 marks. You may include the patient safety element in each strategy.


▪          Discuss the barriers in achieving the chosen identified strategies in a hospital setting (10)

▪          Present a clear description on how the nurse may overcome the barriers in a hospital setting and promote patient safety (10)


CRITERION FOUR: Presentation and Structure  
o   Presents essay in a logical manner

o   Adheres to word limit of 2000 words

o   Uses academic language throughout

o   Essay is well presented, with correct spelling, grammar, and well-constructed sentence and paragraph structure

CRITERION FIVE: Referencing5  
▪          Essay is supported with no fewer than 10 scholarly relevant sources from the last 5 years.

▪          In-text citations are appropriate and correct

▪          Referencing as per APA 6th Edition



▪          Has a concluding paragraph that summarises the overall argument in the assessment.

▪          Does not introduce any new information in the conclusion

Total Marks

[weighted at 50%]



Assignment 1: Discussion—Environmental Change and Community Health

Regardless of ideology, scientific evidence suggests that the climate is changing and humans may contribute to this change (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC], 2007). Climate changes are predicted to have an enormous impact on the environment and global health, both directly and indirectly.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maintains a Web site that discusses the impacts of these changes.

Using the links and Search feature on the EPA Web site listed above, select what you think is the most important issue that your generation needs to address—for example, agriculture and food supply or forests.

Using the readings for this module, the Argosy University online library resources, and in particular the above link, respond to the following:

  • Identify the generation that you are from, for example, baby boomer, generation X, or generation Y. >>I AM A GENERATION Y
  • Examine how the issue that you selected affects public health directly or indirectly. How did your generation contribute to this issue?
  • Briefly summarize how this issue came about. Explain what is predicted to happen as climate change continues with respect to the issue you have chosen. If you chose climate change as your issue, then discuss the predicted impact on health.
  • Research how this issue is currently being addressed. Do you think this is a good strategy, or can this issue be addressed in a better way?

Support your statements with scholarly and credible references as well as appropriate examples.

Effect of land

Effect of land

surface cover on climate
We described the characteristics of different land surface covers in the lecture. We also discussed how each of the types of land surface covers may be modified by human activities. For each of the following land surface covers, discuss at least one type of human activity that can modify the extent of the cover, and how such modification might cause a change in the climate:
The discussion of “how” should include the physical/chemical processes that finally lead to a change in the climate. Present your answers in a table form as follows:
Human activity                       How such activity could cause a change in the climate

Temperature variations
The website http://worldweather.wmo.int/ gives the daily forecasts of many cities in the world as well as the monthly climatology of these cities.  Extract the monthly minimum and maximum temperatures of the following cities of China for the months of Januaryand July:
Beijing, Changchun, Hefei,
Jinan, Nanchang and Guangzhou.

Do the same for Hong Kong by selecting Hong Kong, China from the website.

3.For each of the stations, plot the variation of minimum temperature as a function of latitude, i.e. the x axis is the name of the stations (from north to south) and the y axis the temperature(see below).
You should have two lines, one for January and one for July.
If you don’t know where the stations are, look them up on a map.

4.Repeat 3using the maximum temperature.
5.Based on the graphs you have drawn in 3 and 4, discuss whether these temperature variations agree with those discussed in the lectures in terms of the variation of temperature with latitude in winter and summer.    Make other comments you feel appropriate about the curves.

In most projections of global warming, temperatures in the polar regions tend to have a larger increase than those in the lower latitudes. If this is the case, based on the graphs that you have drawn, what would happen to the north south temperature gradient?

Analysis of an Environmental Disaster


Recent environmental disasters have significantly impacted the human population in multiple ways. In this assignment, you will identify a recent environmental disaster and discuss potential correlated health impacts.

Begin this assignment by identifying one recent example of an environmental disaster. For example, the BP oil spill or the earthquakes in Haiti or Japan.

Using the readings for this module, the Argosy University online resources, and the Internet, write a research paper including the following:

· Provide a description of the environmental event/disaster you have identified.

Include the following points:

o Consider if the event was caused by humans or natural.

o Examine the direct and indirect impact on immediate- and long-term public health.

o Identify data regarding mortality and/or morbidity outcomes, if available.

o Explain the geographical impact with respect to health. Also consider the number of lives lost, environmental damage, economic fallout, and long-term repercussions or impact.

o Examine the research on the likelihood of this event recurring.

· Identify and describe the immediate- and long-term emergency response plans and efforts to the disaster you have selected. Be sure to identify which groups, organizations, and/or governments led or are leading the response efforts and the various players who participated or are participating in this response.

· Examine the lessons learned from previous responses to similar disasters. List at least three recommendations for protecting public health from a recurrence and/or the aftermath of similar disasters in the future.

Be sure to use a minimum of four external, peer-reviewed journal articles or reliable Internet resources.

Write a 2-3page paper in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

By the due date assigned, deliver your assignment to the Submissions Area.


Assignment   2 Grading Criteria

Description   of the recent environmental event/disaster.

Emergency   response plans and recovery efforts.

Recommendations   for the future.

Writing   Components:
Usage and Mechanics
APA Elements Style

Assignment 2: Climate Change Patterns Around the World

This week you will write a paper on the potential public health impacts of climate change on different parts of the world. Many experts predict that climate change will impact different parts of the world in different ways. Some areas of the world may see increased periods of drought while others may experience increased periods of flooding (IPCC, 2007).

In addition, developing countries will most likely be impacted more severely than developed countries (United Nations Development Program [UNDP], n.d.).

Using the Argosy University online library resources and reliable Internet resources, prepare a paper on three of the most important examples of how climate change will impact public health. Be sure to address the following:

  • Examine how the outcomes from climate change on public health will differ between developed and developing countries.
  • Describe what the future will be like for these public health issues as climate change becomes more severe.
  • Explain the mitigation and response plans in place to ameliorate the effects of these changes.
  • Assess the feasibility of these plans. If you could design a plan to address this issue, would it differ from current plans? If so, how?

Be sure to support your positions with scholarly references—including a reference list—and appropriate examples.

Write a 2–3-page paper in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

By the due date assigned, deliver your assignment to the Submissions Area.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2007). IPCC fourth assessment report: Climate change 2007 (AR4). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (n.d.). Environment and energy: Climate change and CDM. Retrieved from

Assignment 2 Grading Criteria

Appropriately selected three of the most important examples of how climate change will impact public health.

Adequately evaluated the three examples in terms of their outcomes, the future of these issues, and mitigation and response plans.

Assessed the feasibility of the mitigation and response plans, including a recommendation to improve the existing plans.

Supported statements with scholarly references and appropriate examples.

Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.