Select two of the following discussion questions for your discussion response. Indicate which questions you have chosen using the format displayed in the “Discussion Forum Sample.”


1: From a pathophysiological perspective, describe the disease mechanism of spinal trauma. Discuss complications associated with spinal trauma based upon time of injury.

2: What are some the recent discoveries surrounding the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease, and how could these discoveries lead to new treatments? Include your resources in your response.


3: What are some of the leading theories that attempt to descrive the pathophysiology underlying fibromyalgia? Which ones are best supported? Include your resources in your response.

Atleast 250 words with references no older than 5 years and intext citation.


health pattern assessment

In this assignment, you will be exploring actual and potential health problems in the childhood years using a functional health assessment and Erickson’s Stages of Child Development. To complete this assignment, do the following:


Using the textbook, complete the “Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment.” Follow the instructions in the resource for completing the assignment.

Cite and reference any outside sources used in your answers. Include in your assessment a thorough discussion of Erickson’s Stages of Child Development as it pertains to the development age of the child.

While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation



Health Admin

  1. After reading the article titled R&D Costs For Pharmaceutical Companies Do Not Explain Elevated US Drug Prices:

a. Do you belive the U.S. is subsidizing pharmaceutical R&D for the rest of the world? Why?

b. Do you believe that R&D expenses explain the high cost of pharmaceuticals in the U.S.? If not, what do you think explains the high prices?

2. After reading the article titled The Effects of Medicaid Expansion under the ACA: Updated Findings from a Literature Review, do you believe that from the perspective of the Public-Interest Theory of Government it is advantageous for a state to expand Medicaid? Why?

NOTE: Your response to Questions 1 should be based solely on an economic and policy analysis anchored on the policy objectives of the Public-Interest Theory of Government that you find relevant to the question. This question is not inquiring about political views of the role (or lack there of) of government in expanding insurance coverage for low-income populations.

3. Based on JAMA article titled The Future of the ACA Reassessment and Revisions:

a. Do you believe the ACA’s main goal was expanding insurance coverage, or dealing with the inefficiencies of the health care system? Why?

b. When the author states, “Congress need to address both the large out-of-pocket cost exposure facing many families and the inadequate subsidies available to moderate-income families.” Said differently, the government should have offered subsidies to individuals with incomes above the 400% of the FPL. Do you agree with this statement? Why? If you do not agree with the statement, what policies do you recommend guaranteeing that in the immediate future individuals with moderate-incomes (i.e., slightly above 400% of the FPL) can afford insurance coverage?

4. Is it possible to have a financially sound individual healthcare market (i.e., not the one where the employer self-insures) without the following ACA requirements? (a) The Individual Mandate; (b) Federal subsidies to individuals; and (c) The 3:1 age-band ratio? Why?

In Total I will need 6 paragraphs. 1A, 1B, 2, 3A, 3B, and 4.


Discussion: Care Plans for PregnancAfter confirming and dating a pregnancy, you must collaborate with patients to develop a personalized care plan. These pregnancy care plans are integral to prenatal care as they help to ensure the mother and child’s well-being throughout the entire pregnancy. Pregnancy can be a wonderful, yet difficult time for women as a woman’s body goes through many physical, mental, and emotional changes that might be challenging or even overwhelming for some. Whether or not these women share their concerns, as the advanced practice nurse, you must routinely watch for signs and symptoms of any developing physical or mental health issues. By collaborating with patients and discussing concerns, you can modify care plans and often address potential issues before they become a significant health problem. For this Discussion, consider pregnancy care plans for the women in the following case studies:Case Study 1:On 1-15-13, you are seeing a 25-year-old Caucasian female in the clinic because she believes she’s pregnant. Her LMP was 12-1-12. Her home pregnancy test was positive, and she has been having nausea and breast tenderness.


To prepare:

  • Review Chapter 30 of the Schuiling and Likis text and Chapter 2 of the Tharpe et al. text.
  • Review and select one of the two provided case studies. Analyze the patient information.
  • Consider how to date the pregnancy and estimate the date of delivery for the patient in the case study you selected.
  • Based on the dating of the pregnancy, reflect on the appropriate clinical guidelines for procedures and screenings. Think about the implications of any missed procedures or screenings.
  • Determine a plan of care for the patient. Identify procedures, screenings, diagnostic testing, pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments (if appropriate), management strategies, and patient education.

Post the estimated date of delivery for the patient (EDD), in the case study. Include an explanation of how you dated a pregnancy and which of the patient’s factors led to your estimated date of delivery. 

Then, based on the dating of the patient’s pregnancy, explain the appropriate clinical guidelines for procedures and screenings. 

Explain implications of any missed procedures and/or screenings.

Finally, explain a plan of care for the patient, including procedures, screenings, diagnostic testing, pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, management strategies, and patient education.

Here are some recommended:

1.Schuiling, K. D., & Likis, F. E. (2017). Women’s gynecologic health (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

2.Tharpe, N. L., Farley, C., & Jordan, R. G. (2017). Clinical practice guidelines for midwifery & women’s health (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012b). Women’s health. Retrieved from

National Institutes of Health. (2012). Office of Research on Women’s Health (ORWH). Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012a). Retrieved from

Assessing Reliability of Complementary Health Approaches Resources Information Presentation

After reviewing the attached Websites (see websites below in bold):

Be sure you use a therapy and not a Healing System–see chart from week one. Choosing a Healing System will be an automatic -5 point deduction.


Create a 12-20 (not including the title and reference slides) slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation on  assessing reliability of information on an mind/body therapy Internet source. Include detailed speaker notes and reference citations.

Describe how a consumer’s attitudes and beliefs about CAM could hinder objective assessments of reliability and credibility in CAM.

Create five (5) objective criteria to judge the reliability of information from a CAM website source. (Review links provided in student materials.)

Select a Complementary Health care therapy or modality, and research the Internet for websites on this therapy. Do not use a website from class  (-3 points deduction)

Be sure you use a therapy and not a Healing System–see chart from week one. Chosing a Healing System will be an automatic -5 point deduction.

The therapy is not the focus of this assignment; it is to provide students with a reference point for the internet search. Then on 2-3 slides, perform the following:

Describe the therapy.

Examine the type of training or education that is required.

Discuss whether a license or certification is required to practice this therapy.

Identify the overseeing or regulating organization for this therapy.

Using your criteria, review one of the websites on your therapy and determine how reliable the site is for CAM information. Do not use a website from class. Part of this assignment is searching for the website.


As the focus of this assignment is on the reliability of information on a website; the criteria and evaluation of the website will be the largest part of this assignment.

Explain how you reached your conclusion about the website. Consider using a grading scale or grid for this exercise.

Describe steps the website could take to increase its credibility.

Present the Assessing Reliability and Credibility of CAM ResourcesPresentation.

For Online and Directed Study students, these are Microsoft® PowerPoint®presentations with speaker notes.

Please do not use as the website


Problem statement:   

African Americans have the highest population of people diagnosed with hypertension.

Research Question:  Does the development of community programs and providing health education, reduce Disparities  in Hypertension in predominately African American Communities versus a more diverse community?


Begin your discussion by sharing your problem statement and research question. Next, discuss your sampling plan. In addition, discuss your research design. Consider the following as you craft your response.


  • How will the sample be selected?
  • What type of sampling method is used? Is it appropriate to the design?
  • Does the sample reflect the population as identified in the problem or purpose statement?
  • Is the sample size appropriate? Why or why not?
  • To what population may the findings be generalized? What are the limitations in generalizability?

Research design

  • What type of design will be used?
  • Does the design seem to flow from the proposed research problem, theoretical framework, literature review, and hypothesis?

Health Systems MGT (HCA 344)

The name of the book is (HOSPITALS)

**there are multiple choices questions and some essay questions**


In Article 2 (Scott et al), what aspects of nursing are LEAST satisfying to patients?

o Interactions based on physical and technical aspects of care only.

o Human understanding of patients’ (and relatives) illness experience.

o Technical & clinical skills competence for safe outcomes.

o Time spent listening and talking (caring behaviors).


As stated in Article 2 (Scott et al). inadequate patient-nurse staffing result in patient death.

o True

o False


Each of the following statements regarding the structure and function of the clinical laboratory are true EXCEPT:

o The clinical pathology division of the clinical laboratory is under the direction of a pathologist.

o The microbiology staff isolates and identifies microorganisms collected from patients.

o The clinical chemistry staff measures various analytes in plasma and serum (from Dr. Thorn – for your information “analytes” refer to metabolic panel items like the following: sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, blood nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, glucose, calcium).

o Staff in the phlebotomy section can collect blood samples from patient, as shared responsibility with the nursing staff.

o All of the statements above are TRUE.


You are a CEO of a 200-bed community hospital in a RURAL Kentucky region with a PHYSICIAN SHORTAGE. Given your concern for the well-being of your citizens, you are grateful for the increase of nurse practitioners and physician assistants who moved into your community. Even though these nurse practitioners and physician assistants will not have admitting privileges to your hospital, they can refer admissions to your hospitalists. You decide to write an editorial to the local newspaper about their community value.

Address the following points in your Editorial:

Dear Rural Community Citizens:

What is a nurse practitioner? What duties (medical care) can a APRN (Advanced Practice Nurse) conduct?

What is a physician assistant? What duties (medical care) describes the role of a PA?

Encourage the local citizens to support the role of nurse practitioners and physician assistants in their community.

Why you, as the CEO of a hospital, finds value to having not only medical doctors but also NPs and PAs providing health care in the community.




Approximately 40 – 50% of all hospital employees work in the department of nursing.

o True

o False



You are a graduate of the masters in HCA at WKU. You have held a mid-level management position in a hospital setting for the past 5 years. You are now interviewing for the position of Chief Operating Officer (COO) at a 120-bed Lifepoint-owned Hospital in Gallatin, Tennessee. One of several departments that will be under your responsibility, should you be selected, is the Department of Physical Therapy. The Director of the PT Department who recently received his doctorate degree in physical therapy from WKU will report directly to you.

How will you respond to the following questions posed by the Director of Human Resources during your JOB interview?

Question 1: tell me about your working knowledge of the role of physical therapists and physical therapy assistants and the services they provide in a hospital setting.

Question 2: Our PT department currently employs 10 FTEs (full time equivalents), in order to justify keeping this level of staffing going forward, describe how patient outcomes are affected by PT services.


Technology typically found on today’s patient care units include:

o Computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan, bar code-assisted patient identification, bedside computer terminals.

o Physician dictation station, hazardous waste incineration, telemonitoring equipment.

o Delivery robot, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), interactive patient education systems.

o Bar code-assisted medication administration (BCMA), computerized medication dispensing machines, computers dedicated for physician use.


Which area within the Diagnostic Imaging Department uses radiopharmaceuticals to diagnose and treat disease?

o Radiation therapy (RT)

o Nuclear medicine (NM)

o Isotope tomography (IT)

o Radioactive fluoroscopy (RF)


Which diagnostic imaging modality provides the physician with a two-dimentional image?

o Chest radiography (x-ray)

o Computed tomography (CT) scans

o Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

o Ultrasound (US)


Diversity is a complex issue that reaches beyond rare, religion, and gender. For example, diversity also includes how to blend the work styles of three generations of hospital employees – Boomers, Gen X, Millennials. Healthcare leaders, like you will be someday, must demonstrate a commitment to building a DIVERSE workforce and developing an INCLUSIVE environment in which all personnel are respected, valued and engaged. Now to the essay questions:

a. Define the term “cultural competence” and its four components.

b. What is the “business case for diversity”? Said another way, when an healthcare organization embraces diversity and inclusion principles, how does it benefit the organization’s effectiveness?

c. The concept of inclusion, in concert with diversity and cultural competence, helps improve services in hospitals. Inclusion is:


__________ describes a specialty, ancillary service that uses high-energy ionizing radiation to destroy cancerous cells.

o Radiation Therapy.

o Radiation Oncology.

o Therapeutic radiology.

o All of the above.

Question 12

The most common size of patient-care or nursing unit is between:

o   8-10 beds per unit.

o   20 to 40 beds per unit.

o   60 to 70 beds per units.

o   >100 beds per centralized unit.

Question 13

Radiologic technologist are key personnel who perform diagnostic imaging examinations. As health care administrator, you will expect the following from this staff rule:

o   Cost-effective diagnostic imaging services

o   High-quality, accurate diagnostic images

o   Required education, certifications, and licensures

o   All of the above


This chapter informs you that hospitals significantly declined in number in the last several decades and that they are now better at controlling ALOS

a. Define the term ALOS

b. According to this author. What trend resulted in the significant decrease in hospital ALOS in the 1990s?

c. Find Table 2-2 in Chapter 2 page 15. State the ALOS trend for AHA-Registered Hospitals in the United States between 1980 to 2008

d. GO on-line to the internet to find the most current United States ALOS you can find Tell me what ALOS you found in what year AND compare it to the 5.5 days 2008 in Table 2-2


Clinical laboratories must be granted a certificate of compliance with CLIA (Clinical Laboratory Improvements Act) and it must be renewed every 2 years. CLIA 1988 was implemented by US Congress in 1988 as a measure to:

o   Prevent misdiagnosis of patients through misread or mixed up lab results.

o   Defined testing categories according to their level of complexity and which lab personnel could perform them.

o   Both A and B.

o   None of the above.


A patient may enter a hospital in a planned or unplanned manner. A planned entry into the hospital occurs when a physician with admitting privileges refers the patient to that hospital through the admissions office. Remember as a non-clinical healthcare manager you could head up the admissions department. Unplanned patient admissions through the emergency department occur every day e.g. from heart attacks or motor vehicle accidents. The emergency department of a hospital, and how it well it operates, will influence the success of the hospital. For example, if physicians and patients trust the services provided in Hospital A’s ER, it becomes a HUGE source of admissions for hospital A. When beds are full, hospitals are financially healthy. But, if Hospital A’s ER is inefficient – long wait times or patients are misdiagnosed then physicians and patients will go to Hospital B. Hospital B’s admission rates improve and it achieves financial and patient outcome successes.