Discussions

 

Each question is 150-200 words

1.) Consider the following scenario. Eric is a 17-year-old and will graduate high school soon. His family keeps pushing him to go to college and make something of himself, he has performed adequately in school but college doesn’t really interest him. His passion is staying at home and playing video games. He has a part-time job at Game store, which he got to keep up on new games. The money earned is usually spent at the store. As a clinician what would you do to help motivate Eric’s career development?

2.) Explore two different job search websites. Compare how trustworthy, useful, and easy the sites appear to be. Consider which site performed better. Which one would you recommend to clients first? Include links to the sites explored in your response.

3.) How is information about personal values used in career counseling? Is it important? Why or why not? How can personal religious or spiritual values play into career counseling

4.) What kinds of interest inventories might you use in your counseling practice? Why?

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Test and measurements

Compare and contrast three standardized tests related to your  specialization based on Elements 1–4 of the Code of Fair Testing  Practices in Education. Record findings, references, and a robust  rationale on a worksheet. Select one test for further analysis in  Assessments 2–4.

Note: Synthesizing the evaluation of test materials and  procedures requires specific steps that must be carried out in a certain  order. Therefore, you must complete the assessments in this course in  the order in which they are presented.

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As a psychologist, social worker, counselor, therapist, researcher,  mental health professional, or educator, your profession will utilize  some form of tests and measurements. Even if you do not plan on  administering tests, you still need to understand the results described  in evaluation reports. Even if you will not need to read reports of  evaluations, you will need to keep current with the professional  literature.

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your  proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment  criteria:

  • Competency 1: Apply terminology, principles, statistical concepts,  and psychometric features related to the construction and application of  psychological tests.
    • Describe how the three selected tests and category are related to one’s area of specialization and career goals.
    • Define the purpose for testing, the content and skills to be tested, and the intended test-takers for the three tests.
    • Describe the appropriateness of test content, skills tested, and  content coverage for the intended purpose of testing for the three  tests.
    • Describe materials provided by test developers and whether the  information provided is clear, accurate, and complete for the three  tests.
    • Compare and contrast the three tests based on Elements 1–4 in the Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education.
  • Competency 3: Evaluate the properties, techniques, and applications used in psychological evaluation.
    • Recommend one test for further analysis, based on analysis of Elements 1–4 of the Code of Fair Testing in Education.
  • Competency 4: Evaluate the legal, ethical, and professional issues related to test usage.
    • Analyze the level of professional knowledge, skills, and training required to administer and interpret the three tests.
  • Competency 7: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly,  professional, and consistent with expectations for members of the  psychological profession.
    • Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and APA format and style.
  • QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:

 

As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think  about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your  viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and  discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested  friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these  questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need  to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.

  • Which categories of tests are you most likely to use in your current (or anticipated) profession?
  • What is a standardized test?
  • How are test norms developed for a test?
  • What are the three types of reliability evidence? How is the evidence collected for each type?
  • What are the three types of validity evidence? How is the evidence collected for each type?
  • What is the relationship between test reliability and validity?
  • How are validity and reliability coefficients interpreted?

 

Required Resources

The following are required to complete this assessment.

Bookstore Resources

This resource is available from the Capella University Bookstore:

  • American Educational Research Association. (2014). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: Author.
    • Chapter 9, “The Rights and Responsibilities of Test Users,” pages 139–148.
    • Chapter 10, “Psychological Testing and Assessment,” pages 151–168.
Capella Resources
Internet Resources

Please note that links may change frequently. Permissions to use the  following links have been granted, or the links have been deemed  appropriate for educational use at the time of course publication.

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Suggested Resources

The resources provided here are optional. You may use other resources  of your choice to prepare for this assessment; however, you will need  to ensure that they are appropriate, credible, and valid. The PSY-FP7610 – Tests and Measurements Library Guide  can help direct your research, and the Supplemental Resources and  Research Resources, both linked from the left navigation menu in your  courseroom, provide additional resources to help support you.

Capella Resources

Library resources by topic:

Capella University Library Resources
  • Groth-Marnat, G., & Wright, A. J. (2016). Handbook of psychological assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
    • This handbook covers topics related to the evaluation of a  psychological test (see Chapter 1), and introduction to several specific  instruments, including but not limited to:
      • Wechsler Intelligence Scales.
      • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.
      • Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory.
      • NEO Personality Inventory.
    • Additionally, this text offers an introduction to completing the  following assessments: clinical, behavioral, personality, and  neuropsychological.
  • Urbina, S. (2014). Essentials of psychological testing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
    • The text provides information about test score interpretation using  two possible frames of reference: norms and performance criteria. These  references are often referred to as norm-referenced and  criterion-referenced interpretation.
  • Salkind, N. J. (2007). Encyclopedia of measurement and statistics. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
    • This resource provides brief overviews of criterion-referenced testing and correlation coefficient.
  • Shrock, S. A, & Coscarelli, W. C. (2008). Criterion-referenced test development: Technical and legal guidelines for corporate training (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
    • This text is a comprehensive review of developing a test with  criterion-referencing for interpretation. The book includes background  to criterion-referenced testing, test theory, creation of a test, and  legal issues around this type of test.
  • Popham, J. W. (2014). Criterion-referenced measurement: Half a century wasted? Educational Leadership, 71(6), 62–68.
    • This reading compares and contrasts norm-referenced and  criterion-referenced tests. It is a brief introduction to these two  frames of reference in testing and clarifies their similarities and  differences.
Capella Multimedia
Internet Resources
Bookstore

These resources are available from the Capella University Bookstore:

  • Cohen, R. J., Swerklik, M. E., & Sturman, E. D. (2013). Psychological testing and assessment: An introduction to tests and measurement (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

 

Preparation

This assessment requires you to focus on what will likely be a common  task in your future career, regardless of the area of specialization  you are studying at Capella: the review and selection of an appropriate,  quality, standardized test. There are a multitude of published tests in  the fields of education and psychology; many purport to measure the  same constructs, content, or skills. Is there a checklist or procedure  to help a professional make the best choice among those tests for a  specific purpose? The answer is yes: It is the Joint Committee on  Testing Practices’ (2004) Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education.

Although the code addresses the roles of test developers and test  users separately, you will be following the standards for test users  and, specifically, the section on selecting tests (refer to page 5 of  the code, which is linked in the Required Resources). There are nine  elements to consider when selecting a test. For this assessment, you  will focus on the first four of these elements. You may choose to identify more than one category of interest if it applies to your academic and professional goals.

Your first step is to identify a test category that is relevant to your academic and professional career goals. Refer to the List of Tests by Type PDF in the Required Resources, which provides your choice of tests by category for this assessment.

Select a test category relevant to your professional training and goals.  You will compare and contrast three tests from the category you choose  in this assessment, selecting one test for in-depth analysis for the  remaining three assessments in this course.

  1. Access the Capella Library and conduct a search using the Mental  Measurements Yearbook (MMY) database (linked in the Resources) to locate  and read a review for each test. Mental Measurements Yearbook is  available on the Databases A-Z page in the Capella Library. It is also  linked in the Resources of this course. (Note: Do not access  the Buros Web site directly from your web browser. If you do, Buros will  request that you start an account to pay for the reviews. As a Capella  learner, you can access these reviews without charge through the Capella  University Library.)
  2. Visit the publisher’s Web site for each test to obtain additional information.
  3. Use the Capella library’s Databases A–Z: Psychology (linked in the  Resources) to choose a database, for example, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES,  ERIC (education research), et cetera.
  4. Search for peer-reviewed journal articles that are relevant to the  four elements and each test. You can limit your search results by  selecting journals only from the database.

Review the Required readings from your Standards text before beginning this assessment.

Instructions

  1. Use the List of Tests by Type PDF in the Required Resources to select three tests from one or two categories. Select a test category that is relevant to your professional training and goals.
  2. Use the Assessment 1 Template: Review and Selection of a Standardized Test worksheet in the Required Resources to complete this assessment.

For this assessment, assume the role of a professional in a setting related to your specialization.

Scenario

Your supervisor has assigned you the responsibility of  reviewing and selecting a standardized test to be used in your setting.  Knowing that you will be expected to provide an evidence-based rationale  for your selection, construct a compare and contrast worksheet for your  notes and prepare a summary of your analysis with academic references.

Record all information on the Assessment 1 Template: Review and Selection of a Standardized Test worksheet. There are three sections. The Scoring Guide criteria are italicized.

Section One: Test Review Table

Describe how the three selected tests and category are related to one’s area of specialization and career goal.

  • Identify a professional setting (specialization) and the three tests you researched and reviewed.
  • Select the three tests from a single category*  using the List of Tests by Type document. The List of Tests by Type  document identifies the 10 categories you may choose from. They include  (1) intelligence/cognitive abilities, (2) achievement/aptitude, (3)  personality, (4) behavior, (5) adaptive behavior, (6)  neuropsychological, (7) career/business/organization, (8) autism, (9)  depression, and (10) preschool.

*You may select a test from two categories, if it aligns with your professional goals.

Findings: Compare and contrast these three tests  according to the Code’s first four (1–4) elements. Use the element title  as a subheading under Findings.

Define the purpose for testing, the content and skills to be tested, and the intended test-takers for the three tests.

  • Element 1. “Define the purpose for testing, the content and skills  to be tested, and the intended test takers” (Joint Committee on Testing  Practices, 2004, p. 6, See #1). Describe your findings for all three  tests, citing references. Use this section to introduce each test and  report on each of the three elements: purpose, content and skills, and  intended test-takers.

Describe the appropriateness of test content, skills tests, and  content coverage for the intended purpose of testing for the three  tests.

  • Element 2. Describe “the appropriateness of test content, skills  tested, and content coverage for the intended purpose of testing” (Joint  Committee on Testing Practices, 2004, p. 6, See #2). Describe your  findings for each test, citing references. Use this section to report on  unique comments or research that evaluate any aspects of the  appropriateness of each test. There may be a wide range of facets  considering appropriateness that may be unique to each particular test  under consideration.

Describe materials provided by test developers and whether the  information provided is clear, accurate, and complete for the three  tests.

  • Element 3. Describe “materials provided by test developers and  select tests for which clear, accurate, and complete information is  provided” (Joint Committee on Testing Practices, 2004, p. 6. See #3).  Describe your findings for each test, citing references. Use this  section to describe either reviews or your evaluation of the materials  described in the sources you locate for each test under consideration.

Analyze the level of professional knowledge, skills, and training required to administer and interpret the three tests.

  • Element 4. “Select tests through a process that includes persons  with appropriate knowledge, skills, and training” (Joint Committee on  Testing Practices, 2004, p. 6. See #4). Include specific publisher  information about test-user qualification (for example, Level A, B, or  C; or other classification). Describe your findings for each test.
Section Two: Test Selection and Rationale

Compare and contrast the three tests based on Elements 1–4 in the code of Fair Testing Practices in Education.

  • Compare and contrast the three tests based on these four elements (i.e., I–IV).

Recommend one test for further analysis, based on analysis of Elements 1–4 of the Code of Fair Testing in Education.

  • Select one of the three tests which is most applicable to your  current professional setting or to a setting you may choose in the  future. Provide a rationale for test selection.
Section Three: References
  • Add references to support your analysis and rationale.

Additional Requirements

Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar. punctuation, mechanics, and APA format and style.

  • References: A minimum of nine references are required for this assessment.
    • Three Mental Measurements Yearbook test reviews from (one for each test).
    • Three test publisher Web sites (one for each test).
    • Three peer-reviewed journal articles (one for each test).
  • Current APA format and style is required throughout. Be sure to use  correct format and style for each respective type of reference, for  example, Web site versus journal).
  • Times New Roman font, 12 pt.
  • Double-spaced.
Reference

Joint Committee on Testing Practices. (2004). Code  of fair testing practices in education. Retrieved from  http://www.apa.org/science/programs/testing/fair-testing.pdf

 

Assessment 1 ContexThink about what first drew you to the field of psychology. Did you want to work with or help people? Did you want to improve your understanding or your own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors? Did you want to do research in the field or at a university? Or, perhaps you wanted to teach others about psychology?

You likely (hopefully), started your journey with excitement for the subject. Now, comes this course, and you may be asking, “Why do I have to take a course in tests and measurements?” You likely have had many experiences with tests in your own school or work history. Perhaps they were positive experiences; perhaps they were negative experiences. Everyone brings a bit of bias with their unique history. Sometimes, the history of testing itself brings a bias that remains timeless. How do we discern what is true about testing, be it good or bad?

Regardless of what motivated you to study psychology, understanding tests and measurements will be an important skill set for all the possible roles you may take in the future. The content in this course offers the ability to develop the skills that are prerequisite to being a competent professional in the field—be it as a psychometrist, counselor, program evaluator, organizational or behavior consultant, or a clinical, educational, or school psychologist.

So, if you took time to think about why you need tests and measurements, as well as your own history with testing, then you will explore why we have testing in the first place. Would the world be better off if there were no tests at all? Some may suggest that a test-free world would be desirable; while other may think that testing is the perfect tool for answering questions in the field, whether it involves working with individual people or entire organizations.

Think about this: Would you like the idea of being operated on by a surgeon who never had his or her medical and surgical knowledge and skills assessed? Would you like the idea of flying with an airline pilot who was never tested for his or her skills as a pilot? Or what about you? Would you prefer that your grade in a course be based on the instructor’s general impression of you, or on your graded performance on assignments, discussions, and tests?

So, you may (hopefully) prefer graded performance on a test over an instructor’s general impression of you. However, you may likely want that final test, or any test you take, to be properly constructed to measure what it purports to measure, to be consistent in that measurement, and to provide information that is appropriate for the question being asked. For example, we could plan on collecting information on either:

1. How well you did on a test based on predetermined levels of proficiency or criterion.

2. Your performance reflected as a position relative to all other learners, or a normative group.

 

For this course, your work will be scored according to the first option, or criterion-referenced scores. There are advantages to either approach.

We explored the why of your interest in the field of psychology, the why of studying tests and measurements, and the how of tests and measurements. Hopefully, you are convinced about the importance of the content that you will experience in this course in terms of it preparing you to be a competent professional in the field.

Psychology professionals use or interpret tests to assess behaviors; they must be trained how to determine the appropriate test for a setting and individual. It essential to understand the concepts, applications, and procedures for obtaining various statistics that are generated with the tests used in the field, as well as best practices defined by the Joint Committee on Testing Practices.

There are four scales of measurement, which are easily remembered with the acronym NOIR—nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Each of these levels or scales of measurement has its own properties, methods for assigning numbers or scores, and procedures for statistically manipulating them. All possible attributes in psychology can be examined through at least one of these four scales and the creation of scores that purport to measure them. You will come across one or more of these scales as you research different published tests in the field of psychology. It is important that you understand each scale’s properties and limitations in terms of using data obtained from them, as well as how we interpret those data through the use of normative or criterion-referenced tests.

Short Essay

1.         The catharsis theory of aggression holds that:

a.         aggressive impulses, if kept bottled up, will eventually fade away.

b.         one act of aggression usually leads to further aggression.

c.          one act of aggression reduces the likelihood of further acts of aggression.

d.         frustration leads to aggression.

Why did select this answer?

2.         Bushman and Bonacci had an experiment in which people watched violent or sexually explicit or neutral TV shows with advertisements.  Under which conditions did men and women recall the advertised products?  How did the experimenters explain the reasons for this outcome?

3.         Based upon Article #26 in Readings About the Social Animal, explain Malamuth’s findings on the predictors of naturalistic sexual aggression.

4.         Some people believe that exposure to, or participation in, aggressive behavior is beneficial because it allows people to release their pent-up aggression.  Where do you stand on this issue?  Do you agree or disagree with this premise?  Be sure to back up your answer with examples of relevant research.

5.         Most everyone would agree that reducing human aggression is a worthwhile goal-one that may be crucial to our survival as a species.  Summarize two of the several methods for achieving this goal.  Support your choices with relevant research.

300-400 words per question. APA format. 

Professional Counseling question

Details:

This is a three-part assignment. Specific directions for each of the three parts are outlined below. This assignment should be uploaded as ONE document that includes all three parts. A comprehensive reference page that lists the sources used in all three parts of the assignment should be included at the end of the document.

Part 1Ethical and Legal Viewpoint

Write, from your future perspective of being an ethical and law-abiding counselor, a 500-750-word paper in which you incorporate your ethical and legal view on the following topics:

  1. Volunteerism – What standards do you need to uphold if you are in a voluntary position or providing free/pro bono work?
  2. Self-disclosure – Would you disclose personal information to a client? If so, when and how is it appropriate?
  3. Objectivity – Why is it important to remain objective for your client?
  4. Self-care – How will you balance your life?
  5. Spirituality – How will you maintain your spirituality in and out of practice?

Be sure to cite professional code of ethics and/or articles to support your statements.

Part 2Disposition Analysis

Choose three of the dispositions required of professional counselors. Write a 250-500 word personal reflection on the dispositions that you chose. Make sure to discuss some of the strengths you have in maintaining the dispositions as well as any challenges you may face in upholding the dispositions.

Part 3Professional Organization Research

Often times, professional counselors are ethically required to join a professional counseling organization. Even if not required, it is good practice to do so.  Research a professional organization that you might join such as the American Counseling Association, your state’s counseling association, an association for addictions counselors such as NAADAC, or another relevant professional organization.

Write a 500-750 word overview of the organization or association you chose. Include the following in your overview:

  • Membership benefits
  • Available activities and/or services to members
  • Current issues addressed by the organization that are relevant to the counseling profession (These items are usually listed on the association’s website, but you may research elsewhere for one or two current issues in the field.  Examples of current issues could include lobbying efforts for particular populations or specialties in the field, proposed or changing laws/regulations, high profile court cases involving ethical violations, or the like.)

Be sure to cite resources used for this part of the assignment.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

PSYCHOLOGY DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

Discussion #1. Sternberg and Sternberg present several paradigms and approaches, as well as their own views of thinking. Compare two of the following perspectives, describing first the two approaches you selected.

Next, note the apparent similarities in the approaches (for example, did they emerge at the same time? Are there similar research methods used?) and note their differences. Did one approach influence the other?

· William James’s approach.

· Behaviorism.

· Gestalt psychology.

· Wilhelm Wundt approach.

· The cognitive approach.

Discussion #2.Baumeister and Bushman (2014) describe Triplett’s research that demonstrates how individual performance increases in the presence of others, but in a seeming contradiction, tends to decrease when a person is part of a group performance. This is just a glimpse of the topics that social psychologists have explored and confirmed through research. As you go through the course, you will read about many past and present fascinating research studies conducted in social psychology. Social psychology relies heavily on research to understand how humans think, feel, and behave in social contexts.

For this discussion:

· Explain why research is so important to social psychology and why social psychologists rely on research rather than reaching conclusions based on perception or wisdom.

· Describe two different research designs that social psychologists use and what types of information can be gained from each. What are the limitations of each design?

In this, and in all your course discussions, be sure to offer support for your statements and follow APA guidelines.

Discussion #3. Throughout history, both scientists and non-scientists have struggled with the concept of mind versus brain. It has been a constant source of bewilderment whether the mind is in fact a dimension of the brain, or whether these two entities are separate. René Descartes (1596–1650) believed that the nonmaterial mind intervened in the operations of the brain. Material monists insist that the brain is a machine, and its operation accounts for the mind. Dualists, on the contrary, took their stand with Descartes and insisted that a two-way interaction operated between mind and brain.

To complete this discussion:

· Briefly summarize the history of the mind-brain problem and argue for the validity of either the monist’s or dualist’s theory. Although your text provides some information, additional materials will be necessary to craft a careful argument. You may wish to consult texts from other disciplines, including philosophy and economics, to support your position.

Psychology

You are to locate one source of pop psychology and one source of empirical research and compare and contrast the merit of the information in each as follows:  Begin by searching in the appropriate place for 2 sources that are fittingly related to each other on any topic in Psychology. Empirical research can only be found in professional journals. The easiest way to find a professional journal article is by accessing PsycINFO through the portal at my.saintleo.edu then locating the online Library. Pop psychology sources are newspapers, news magazines, tabloids, and other self-help articles found either online or on store shelves that offer advice. Examples include articles by Dr. Phil, Dear Abby, Dr. Laura, Tony Robbins, etc. Articles in Psychology Today and WorldHealth.net are pop psychology and, although they may report on or refer to empirical research, they are not professional journal articles. To prepare your essay, you should think critically about the merit of the information in each article by asking the following questions about each: a.) What is the main issue, problem, or intention of the article? b.) In what way(s) does the article investigate various points of view and assumptions? c.) What evidence is provided to support the issue? d.) In what way(s) does the article discuss consequences and implications of the reasoning provided? e.) In what way(s) does the information provided help you make an informed decision about the purpose?  Now, focus on the answers to the above questions and compare and contrast the 2 sets of information.  Determine what your thesis is and state it clearly and concisely. It should briefly introduce your topic but more importantly should indicate that your purpose is to compare and contrast the merit of the pop psychology article with the merit of the empirical article. This will be the first sentence of your essay.  In the body of you r essay, you may do a whole-to-whole comparison of the 2 sets of information or you may do a (less common) point-to-point comparison. For a whole-towhole comparison, address the information about one of the articles by discussing its merit using the critical thinking concepts above, then, do the same for the second article. For point-by-point, you should address the first important point about one article then that same point about the other, discuss a second point about one then the other, and so on. You will want to be very thorough in the body as this is a very large percentage of your grade on the essay.  Your conclusion should summarize how the merit of the pop psychology article compares and contrasts with the merit of the empirical article, thus reaffirming your thesis without restating it. This is where you conclude with inferences, clearly address implications or consequences of accepting the given information, and culminate any assertions. Additional Resources: For more help on how to search our library and a video lecture from one of our Saint Leo University librarians on how to do this assignment, copy and paste this link into your browser: http://saintleo.libguides.com/PSY110Critique. Here’s a very short video on APA Format: In-Text Citations, Quotations, and Plagiarism https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1FrJeRrLYe0 Here’s another video on How to do your Reference Page in APA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TmcaYdZDa-U Refer to the assignment guidelines and scoring rubric for further information.